The owner of this 3d print is very happy. When all the parts had been print it turned out to be a massive building. 20 mm scale or 1/72nd scale it a good size.. 28 mm scale would take up a complete table. It took about 1 1/4 roll of filament. So my first commission is finished. Here are a couple of pictures.
Yom Kippour War
- 3d printing
- Advance Squad Leader
- Advance Squad Leader & Squad Leader
- Analogue Challenge
- Aussie in Vietnam
- Aussies in Vietnam
- Australians in Vietnam
- Barkskins French and Indian wars
- blood eagle
- casting resin
- CDS IDF variant rules
- Chain of Command
- Civil war
- Cold War era
- colonial miniatures
- crescent root
- cresent root
- Cry havoc
- dungeon saga
- DVG warfighter series
- Easy Eight battleground rules
- Fat Dragon
- french EE
- Grosse Pointe Library WW2 series
- Grosse Pointe Library WW2 series by David Lamb
- Lion Rampant
- Lock & Load
- Mack my Scottish terrier
- Men who would be kings
- Model companies.
- modeling tips
- Muskets & Tomahwaks
- my good friends
- Night fighter Ace
- old school tactical
- Operation Claymore.
- Painting tips.
- Perry Brothers
- Pike mans Lament
- Pike mans Lament/ ECW
- Plastic Soldier Company
- sea battles
- Sharps Practice
- Six Day war 1967
- Solatire games
- Star Trek
- valor & Victory
- WW2. Zevzda
- Yom Kippour
Sunday, August 9, 2020
Saturday, August 8, 2020
I just started purchasing this games. What I like is that the game can be played solo or a team. The game is exciting. Basically one will never play the same game. Here is a breakdown where the expansion decks can be used.
The Warfighter Battle Packs were designed to be standalone sets depicting a specific historical campaign or setting. However, they can be expanded by combining with other sets which you may already have.
Friday, August 7, 2020
Wednesday, August 5, 2020
Tuesday, August 4, 2020
Due to uncertainty and misinformation, the terms Dum Dum and exploding bullet have been thrown about since the beginning of the Boer War itself. The following, slightly tedious information clearly explains the bullets used by the British army before, during and after the Boer War from the inception of the .303 rifle.
The Lee-Metford's first significant test took place in India during the Chitral Expedition. This was a relatively minor campaign in 1895 to relieve a besieged fort near the present Afghanistan border. It was marked by a number of skirmishes involving British troops against fanatically brave tribesmen. These warriors, even though hit, often continued their charges right to the muzzles of the British rifles. This resistance against the rapid fire of the new rifle came as an unpleasant surprise to the British who were accustomed to the dramatic knockdown power of the Snider and Martini-Henry. Subsequently, it was found that many of the Chitrali warriors, even though severely hit by one or more bullets, had continued fighting, left the battlefield without assistance, and later made full recoveries (Broadfoot, Blackwoods, June 1898, pp 831-2), most unlike the expected behaviour of European soldiers!
The Dum Dum Mk II expanding bullet
It was obvious that the Lee-Metford's cupro-nickel jacketed bullet had nowhere near the killing power of the earlier cartridges. Instead of expanding and depositing its remaining energy in the enemy's body or blowing a large hole and pulverising bones, the .303 bullet was likely to pass right through, causing little damage unless striking a vital organ. The British soldiers began to lose confidence in their new rifle and something had to be done. A similar problem had been noted by Indian hunters using jacketed bullets and a certain General Tweedie had invented a bullet which had largely resolved the matter.
Although the Tweedie bullet had the new metal jacket, this covering had slits in the side and a shortened tip exposing the lead core. The result of this arrangement was that, upon striking flesh, the metal jacket mushroomed, or opened up like a flower, increasing the bullet's diameter and resulting in a wide wound channel and a gaping hole if it passed through. Should the bullet be retained in the body, its victim suffered the full effect of its kinetic energy.
The Indian Army did not wish to infringe patent rights and the problem was handed to Captain Neville Bertie-Clay on the staff of the Indian Dum Dum Ammunition Factory (hence the name of the specific type of bullet which he was soon to develop). Clay's solution to the problem was most effective, involving merely a slightly altered Mk II bullet which, instead of having a full cupro-nickel jacket, had one slightly shortened thus exposing one millimetre of the lead core at its tip. 'Dum Dum' has now become a generic term often incorrectly applied to all forms of expanding bullets rather than to this specific pattern.
This bullet, the Dum Dum Mk II, special as it was officially called, was soon to be tested during late 1897 in what became known as the Tirah Campaign, when an Afridi tribe revolted in the region of the Kyber Pass. British troops armed with their Lee-Metfords and new expanding Dum Dum bullets encountered fierce resistance. However, the results, most particularly at close quarters, were all that had been hoped for. The resulting wounds were similar to those produced by the trusty Snider and Martini-Henry: any limb struck almost always required amputation, while wounds to the body or head were generally fatal. It should be noted, however, that at distances exceeding 400 yards (366 m) the destructive powers of bullets of this sort decreased rapidly, eventually producing wounds similar to those of the fully jacketed Mk II
Naturally, events in Chitral and the Tirah had been closely followed back in the United Kingdom. High Command soon became uncomfortably aware of the shortcomings of the Lee-Metford with its Mk II ammunition. A supply of Dum Dum cartridges was imported from India and tested. However, the War Office decided to adopt its own cure for the Lee-Metford's shortcomings: the Mk IV cartridge with expanding head, developed at Woolwich.
The Mk IV bullet differed from the Indian Dum Dum in that it was merely a standard Mk II with a ⅜-inch deep hole punched into its nose, creating a cavity reminiscent of the old Snider bullet, another hollow point, which, when encountering a moist substance such as flesh at high velocity, was subjected to extreme pressure causing its nose to burst open. This increased its diameter with similar effects to the Indian Dum Dum, the Snider and the Martini.
Once again, the consciences of the War Office were clear. Despite the new bullet's explosive performance, Britain's St Petersburg Declaration had not been violated as the Mk IV contained no explosive. Whether, of course, the Mk IV's effects met the spirit of this commitment was another matter! It was officially adopted in February 1898.
However, before adequate supplies could be produced, the forces under Kitchener had already advanced into the Sudan with the intention of overthrowing the Khalifa and avenging General Gordon. The prospects of facing the fanatical Dervishes at close quarters with the Lee-Metford rifle and its ineffective Mk II ammunition were obviously a matter of serious concern to General Gatacre, the second in command. His contemporary report reads: 'The present-shaped bullet of the .303 Lee-Metford rifle has little stopping power. So, I am altering the shape of the bullet to that of the Dum Dum bullet. I do this by filing the point off. Before I left Cairo I provided 400 files and small gauges to test the length of the altered bullet and daily we have 2 800 men at this work. I borrowed 50 railway rails and mounted them flat side uppermost to form anvils upon which to file ... I am getting on very well with altering the ammunition. We have 3 000 000 rounds to alter, but are making good progress, altering 80 000 rounds per day'.
Mk II with filed tip as prepared
by General Gatacre in the Sudan. The tips of the bullets were no longer rounded, but square, and these cartridges were inclined to jam when fed into the breech from the magazine during rapid fire. This was a matter of serious concern, but fortunately an adequate supply of the new Mk IV cartridges, with their hollow-pointed expanding bullets, arrived during May and the substitute dum dums were used up in volley-fire practice.
The Battle of Omdurman, which saw the forces of the Khalifa routed, took place on 2 September 1898. Mk IV cartridges were used by the British soldiers in their Lee-Metford rifles and Maxim machine guns. The Egyptian troops were armed with the obsolescent, but effective, Martini-Henry. Personal accounts concerning the wounds inflicted by the new Mk IV bullets at Omdurman are rather non-committal. However, back in England they were considered to have been effective. In all probability the results proved disappointing. As previously mentioned, it had been found that, at ranges exceeding 400 yards, the effects of the dum dum and Mk IV bullets differed little from those of the solid Mk II. Nowhere did the Dervishes get closer to the British lines than 800 yards (731 m).
Meanwhile, back in England, problems had arisen, both political and technical in nature. Firstly, there was a parliamentary concern that the use of Dum Dum and Mk IV ammunition by the British would cause other European nations to follow suit. The parliamentarians were obviously reminded that, since the bullets contained no explosive, they were internationally acceptable, and, moreover, the wounds caused were no worse than those of the Martini and Snider, which had raised no international concern (Hansard parliamentary reports: 25 February and 1 March 1898). Secondly, a technical problem had arisen. It was found that heat and pressure generated upon firing softened the lead core of the Mk IV bullet to the extent that it occasionally squirted out through the hollow nose, leaving its metal jacket in the barrel. If undetected this could cause the rifle to explode when fired again. This matter was also raised in Parliament and resulted in the withdrawal of the Mk IV cartridges from the South Africa Garrison.
However, the military commitment to the expanding bullet remained, with the problem being resolved by merely adding antimony to the lead in the bullet's core to harden it. Thus was introduced the Mk V cartridge which, in other respects, was identical to the Mk IV hollow point.
The Hague Convention
Another political issue originated in Germany, where Professor von Bruns, Surgeon-General of the Württemberg Army, conducted experiments with British Mk IV ammunition and German sporting cartridges approximating the Dum Dum. He used live animals and human cadavers. His dramatic results were presented to the German Society of Surgeons which, in turn, petitioned the German Government to promote an international agreement whereby only fully jacketed bullets could be used in war. Unfortunately for Britain, the von Bruns report was shortly followed by another international arms conference, this time held at The Hague. For nations such as France and Germany, which never lost an opportunity to embarrass and inconvenience Britain, this was a wonderful opportunity to make a major issue of the use of expanding bullets.
Britain's justification, one of 'military necessity', was presented by her delegate, Sir John Ardagh at the conference: 'In civilised war a soldier penetrated by a small projectile is wounded, withdraws to the ambulance, and does not advance any further. It is very different with a savage [sic]. Even though pierced two or three times he does not cease to march forward, does not call upon the hospital attendants, but continues on and before anyone has time to explain to him that he is flagrantly violating the decisions of the Hague Conference he chops off your head. It is for this reason the English delegate demands the liberty of employing projectiles of sufficient efficiency against savage races [sic]' (Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conference, p 343).
Significantly, the American delegate, a Captain Crozier, argued that a bullet should be judged by the wound it caused and not by its construction. This was an important point with later ramifications. The motion against the use of expanding bullets in any war whatsoever was carried by 22 votes against Britain and America. America was considering their use in the Philippines (Tuchman, p 262)! The wording of the motion, which was adopted on 29 July 1899, reads: 'The contracting parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover the core or is pierced with incisions' (Hague Peace Conference, p 262). Nations ratifying this clause of the Hague Declaration were bound in conflicts between each other, provided the other side was not joined by a non-signatory. Britain and the United States had the option of later agreeing to abide by this clause, but without ratification. As is later recorded, Britain did so.
Soon after the Hague Convention, the Boer War commenced in South Africa. One week later, the Mk V Cartridge hollow point was officially approved for issue. Since Britain was not bound by The Hague Convention and the Transvaal had not participated in it, this cartridge could have been used. Although the British considered the Boers a race of primitive farmers, they were white, and that made the difference. Requests for the issue of the Mk V by senior officers were refused, and only the Mk II cartridge was authorised.
Regrettably, the Boer War was not entirely without the use of expanding bullets. There is proof that some Mk IV cartridges were fired by the British during the Armoured Train incident. These bullets were brought up to Frere with the Durban Light Infantry and had been issued from their stores in Durban. It appears that the Boers occasionally used soft-nosed sporting rounds in their Mausers or tampered with the points of their issued ammunition.
Post-Boer War developments
Even though the Mk V Cartridge was declared obsolete in January 1903, production recommenced later that same year following the virtual annihilation of a British detachment at Gumbura in Somaliland.
Mk V Cartridges were despatched, but the extent to which they were actually used, if at all, is unknown (see D E Watters, www.the gunzone.com/dum-dum. htm/). The final official use of the Mk V expanding bullet was during the 1906 Bambatha Rebellion when these cartridges were used against the Zulu (Stuart, p 59). Direct evidence of the results is lacking, but it is understood that some members of Natal units who took part in the close range shooting of Bambatha's warriors at the Mome Gorge were haunted for years afterwards by their experiences!
A second Hague Convention took place in October 1907. Two weeks later, Britain agreed to abide by, but not ratify, the provisions relating to expanding bullets as previously provided for in 1899. However, by that date, this would seem to have been merely a political gesture. By then, the old Mk II Cartridge had been replaced by the Mk VI. To all appearances, this bullet resembled the standard Mk II, but, in fact, its Hague-compliant unbroken metal jacket on the nose had been made thinner in the expectation that it would rupture allowing the bullet to expand upon high velocity contact with flesh and bone. Actually, the modification was not particularly effective (Watters, www.thegunzone.com/dum-dum.htm/ ), but this setback was not serious, a most effective replacement being in development by then.
Other nations, most particularly Germany, had adopted what was known as a 'spritzer', or sharp-pointed bullet. This shape, combined with a reduced weight, resulted in a higher velocity and flatter trajectory with improved accuracy. Obviously, with a lighter nose and most of the weight concentrated at the rear of the bullet, this pattern was less stable upon contact with a target and, if this target happened to be flesh, it had a tendency to cartwheel, creating a very severe wound. The British Mk VII Cartridge entered the arena in 1910.
As in the case of the Mk VI, the construction of the Mk VII could not be faulted in terms of the Hague requirements. It was covered by another Hague-compliant, unbroken, cupro-nickel jacket. Officially, to reduce weight even further and thus increase velocity and improve balance, the British version of this design incorporated an aluminium or fibre insert in the point, replacing the front of the lead core. This arrangement, combined with the new streamlined shape had the effect of lowering weight from the Mk VI's 212 grains to 174, thus increasing velocity from 2 000 feet per second to 2440 (609 m/s to 743 m/s). Kinetic energy increased from 2 010 foot pounds to 2 310. However, in our context, the lightened tip even further lowered stability upon contact with flesh, according to Watters (www.thegunzone.com/dum-dum.html ). This cartwheeling bullet, at high velocity, resulted in wounds recalling the good old days of the Snider and Martini-Henry.
Despite German indignation, referring to this bullet as a 'latent dum dum', the Mk VII's credentials in terms of the Hague requirements of an unbroken metallic jacket remained impeccable. It continued to serve the British for more than 50 years through two World Wars and Korea with its last users probably being British snipers with their .303 No 4 Mk I (T) Rifles during the early days of the problems in Northern Ireland.
Monday, August 3, 2020
Tuesday, July 28, 2020
Monday, July 27, 2020
July 27, 1938, was the birthday of the unforgettable Gary Gygax, and today we pay homage to him.
Hail to the first Dungeon Master, to the dad of D&D! The man without whom the world of role-playing as it is today would perhaps not even exist! Thanks for all the memories created with friends playing D & D
|Gary left us on March 4, 2008|
Friday, July 24, 2020
|Right wing of the store. The figure is AB US army kneeling (20mm)|
|right wing length|
|closeup of left wing tower|
|Left wing tower, Not all the floor are present with the stl file|